In the article, Garcia et al first introduced the fundamental elements and definition of competition as a social behavior from an objective point of view, which includes the individual factors and the situational factors. Through analyzing the factors affecting social comparison, the authors brought up the idea of a new model to interpret competition through the scope of psychology and beyond. Such new frame work aims to provide accurate psychological analysis towards competition in different target groups and scenarios–personality psychology, consumer psychology, organizational psychology etc. As a conclusion, competitive behavior determines the behavioral traits of individuals within different situational environments, and it is the fundamental factor for both individuals and the whole society to move forward.
Molina et al and Garcia et al were presenting different types of competitions. Garcia et al were more focusing on the horizontal and psychological analysis within the social system, to look at the competition as a social behavior. Meanwhile, Molina’s competition was opposing to cooperation, and most importantly it acts as a link within the social evolution and Darwinian way of thinking. Such type of competition is closer to “zero-sum” competition in economics, that it stands on the opposite side of cooperation and reciprocity, winner was granted the chance to evolve while the losing ones or groups would be facing distinction.
To raise an example, the competition that Garcia et al were presenting was similar to the competition between automobile manufacturers, especially the ones aiming at the same category of market share, such as the competition between BMW and Merc, Toyota and Nissan etc. The existence of competition and rivalry helped improve and perfect themselves, in each range of consumer market globally they are forming rigid oligopolies, it is a beneficial, sustainable system brought by competition. On the other hand, during the second industrial revolution when automobiles were first introduced, the competition between cars and carriages or rickshaws were more likely to be the competition in Molina et al’s article, technological advancement would gradually replace and distinct the under-developed means of transportation.
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