Tobias Werron targeted on the study of competition directly. Werron explained competition from its historical origins and modern meanings. Compared with Bateson and Hutcheon’s work, the approach that Werron applied towards competition appeared not only more direct but also fairly objective. We can prove it by looking into essay forms, situation, and audiences.
First, Werron’s essay is a research essay, while Bateson and Hutcheon’s work are journal academic publications. “Why do we believe on competition? A historical-sociological view of competition as an institutionalized modern imaginary” written by Tobias Werron is first and foremost a research article whose topic is competition. Thus, the author had well listed the historical facts concerning competition. Meanwhile, he applied the statements from economists and sociologists to support his assumptions. Nevertheless, Werron left an open discussion in the end. Thus, the purpose of his essay is to study the topic in an objective way. By contrast, Bateson and Hutcheon had their own focuses. Their essays are academic journal publications but with topics on environments and academia, receptively. These differences can further be addressed as various situations.
Second, three authors wrote articles under different situations. As zschaab has pointed out, both Bateson and Hutcheon had both started from their personal stories, while Werron did not do so. Three authors chose different approaches because those addresses were useful for persuasion in their particular situations. Werron was composing a research essay so that he had to avoid personal tones in order to be objective. It reminds me of writing historical papers that I have to come up with my perceptions but based on historical facts. Objective is crucial to the composition of recherche essay. Werron was in the situation to write a research essay. On the other hand, Bateson started from her understanding of cybersystematically because she is expressing her ideas about environment protection. By the same token, Hutcheon is stating her views over academia. It also means three authors have different audiences.
Third, different target audiences lead to various levels of objectiveness towards competition that three authors held. Werron had a possible target audiences that consist of sociologists because Werron is one of them. He would certainly want to spread his discovery about the social phenomenon, “competition,” around. He explained as objective as he can in his research essay to convince as many as his colleagues as he can. He left an open conclusion to draw broader discussions. As for Bateson, she targeted on environmentalists. She called for cooperation to solve the environmental problem together. Bateson is a famous writer so that she used her own ideas to convince her followers. Hutcheon targeted on wolfish academia. her audiences should be academic intellectuals. They both merely used competition as a tool to approach and persuade their target audiences. Thus, their understanding of competition can be biased.
Genre, consisting of form and situation, and audiences are decisive factors for how authors approached the same conception. Werron appeared to be more objective because he is explaining competition to his sociologists. Bateson and Hutcheon are less objective. Nevertheless, they gave additional
perspectives concerning the concept of competition.