DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MOLINA AND BATESON’S ESSAYS(FOCUSING ON MOLINA)

      In Molina’s essay, we can see clearly that the whole article is divided into 3 parts——the three primary mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation identified by the literature, three types of society(from slightly different angles) and conclusion/suggestions.

      The three primary mechanisms ——kin selection, reciprocity and group selection play important roles in society. Kin selection is a kind of cooperation within the genetically related group. As for reciprocity, it includes three concepts ——direct reciprocity( individuals receive direct benefits), indirect reciprocity( assuming that A helps B, B will help C or C helps A) and network reciprocity which shows that social structural  group has a huge influence on cooperative behaviour. The third mechanism ‘group selection’ which theory has been changed into multilevel selection theory happens on both group level and individual level. All these three ways are based on two theories for social anthropology——cooperation is the start of human community+cooperation and competition are related, regulated and balanced. 

      Then, he introduces  3 different types of society——hunter-gatherer:generalized reciprocity and social equality (the exchange will emergence not only within bands but also different bands/groups which is different from kin selection), tribes:prestige economy, agonistic institutions, and primitive money. In sum, the anthropology demonstrates that both competition and cooperation exist in the human society but with different contexts.

      The structure of this essay is quite easy to get. From the beginning(especially the first paragraph),what the writer intends to tell  is shown to us—— the progress of the study in this field, the perspective of this article, the terms we have to concern about, the relationships among them, the conclusion and suggestions and so on which make the readers easy to get points and follow. Besides, subtitles have also been used which are good to draw specific lines among different parts.Contrasting is widely used in this essay as well.For example, when talking about hunter-gather, Molina figures out that it is different from kin selection which is largely limited by the genetically related group. By contrasting, the advantage of hunter-gather is more prominent because it enhances the relationship between individuals and society.        

      Unlike Bateson who pays more attention to First Person and own feelings, Molina tries to explain the problems from general literature concepts, such as different types of society which are more objective than just simple life stories. He also considers questions from two sides——inside and outside re

five person holding hands together
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asons/ negative and positive effects and so on. Last but not least, he compares many people’s points of views and distinguish them. He used images and excellent titles as well.

      For me, I prefer the structure of this essay written by Molina, which is clear to see through the first paragraph and subtitles.But the Bateson’s article is closer to real life. Both these two articles are excellent.

 

https://www.behavioraleconomics.com/resources/mini-encyclopedia-of-be/reciprocity/

https://www.briantracy.com/blog/sales-success/using-the-law-of-reciprocity-and-other-persuasion-techniques-correctly/

http://www.gip-jci-justice.fr/en/

http://www.oecd.org/dac/development-co-operation-report-20747721.htm

 

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